In pharmacology, bioavailability is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction (%) of an administered drug that reaches the systemic circulation.
By definition, when a medication is administered intravenously, its bioavailability is 100%. However, when a medication (or any other supplement) is administered via routes other than intravenous, its bioavailability is generally lower than that of intravenous due to intestinal endothelium absorption and first-pass metabolism.
So, the question is, how do you absorb all the nutrients your body needs every day if you don’t want to have an IV hooked up to your arm all day?
The answer: Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology involves manipulation of materials on an atomic or molecular scale. It is an emerging technology that has the potential to be used across the spectrum of FDA-regulated products, including animal food.
Available scientific evidence indicates that materials manipulated on the nanoscale level through the use of nanotechnology may result in the materials possessing novel physicochemical properties. The physical characteristics of a particular nanomaterial, including increased surface area-to-volume ratio, morphology, surface features, and charge,
can affect the biological behavior of the material.
In addition, materials manipulated on the nanoscale level through the use of nanotechnology affect the biodistribution, biocompatibility, or toxicity of the material.
For example, changing the particle size of a material will affect its absorption and transport in the body. Thus, the bioavailability of a nanomaterial animal food ingredient is significantly
different from that seen or expected in a larger-scaled material with the same chemical composition, which alters the minimum amount of the animal food ingredient necessary to achieve the intended technical or nutritional effect.